CJUS 646 Liberty University Community Corrections Essay

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Based on the Read items covered in this module, discuss the findings and impact of the Martinson report on the political and social perspective of correctional reform efforts. How is your perspective supported by Biblical examples?

Directions: You will post one thread of at least 250 words. For eachthread, you must support your assertions with at least 6 scholarly citations inAPA format. Each reply must incorporate at least 4 scholarly citation(s) in APAformat. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years.Acceptable sources include the textbook, federal research studies, the Bible,peer reviewed journals (can be found in the Falwell library and Google Scholar)etc.

Transcript: America’s criminal justice system has never treated all citizens. To understand how we got here, we need to take a look at the evolution of the juvenile justice system. Back before the American Revolution. The colonists follows the common law of England when it came to criminal justice. This means that children were held accountable as adults. And 1646 in Massachusetts, an act that a statute called the stubborn child love this maid, child disobedience, a capital offense, allowing a death penalty option. But then things started to change in the 19th century, the idea emerged that children should be taking care of by the state. This notion ultimately empowered the state to serve as a guardian. In 1825, the New York House of refuge, open for juveniles home. They were called delinquents to distinguish them from criminals. Reformers stress that delinquents could be reformed and if properly supported, they wouldn’t turn into life-long prevalent 999 Chicago reformers, also known as child savers. Many of them disenfranchised women decided to fight for the defenseless. One reformer, Lucy Flower had been an orphan herself. The child savers push for the creation of the first ever juvenile court. This wasn’t like a regular court. There was no jury. The judge didn’t look down from the bench but sat at a desk. Julian Mac, one of the first such a judges said, a kid should be made to feel that he is the object of its care and solicitude. This court was the first of its kind anywhere in the world. Kids didn’t get prison time, but instead were put in institutions or, or programs like parents. The court tried to steer kids toward becoming responsible adults. Within 25 years, most states started to think the same thing. Juvenile courts popped up everywhere, even another country. But for children of color, things were different. They were sometimes banned from houses of refuge or juvenile detention centers. And when convicted, they were more likely to be placed an adult prison. Under Jim Crow laws, some cities like Memphis establish separate juvenile courts for kids of color. A police officer, not a judge, presided over the score. After World War II, americans seem to relish the concepts of liberty and justice. The Civil Rights Movement was well underway. Activists began to realize that while juvenile courts were designed to be less punitive, they didn’t provide the constitutional rights enjoyed by a dump. In 1967, for instance, 15-year-old girl phone was accused of making a decent phone call to a nasal. Gerald was arrested without anyone in forming his parents. No record was made of his parents before a judge or the neighborhood complaining joke was committed to a state school until he was 21. An adult with the same charge might have received a $50 fine and two months incarceration. Jolts. Parents brought his case to the Supreme Court in 1967 that ADH does the body do that juveniles were entitled to due process. Then in the seventies, America started rethinking its criminal justice system, prime at spiked, including juvenile crime. And in 1978, New York City passed the juvenile offender act, a law that made it possible to try kids as young as 13 and adult court for murder charges and as young as 14 for other violent crime like assault and Rob. That law clause states across the country to reinterpret who could enter the prison system as an adult. Afraid that a new breed of super predators would sweep over the nation. Today, America incarcerate more juveniles than any country in the world. Every day, 53 thousand children are lumped them. That’s more than a sold out crowd at a Major League Baseball. Nearly 60 percent of these children are black or Latinx. That a certain rights like the Sixth Amendment and the right to a speedy trial or a trial by jury remains only applicable to adults. Advocates have succeeded and getting almost all states to raise the age at which you are considered an adult to 18. But if you commit certain severe crimes, you can still be tried as an adult in adult court and serve adult. Yeah. This is police Leon with the route we are dedicated to bringing you more theories and videos like this and we need your help. There is no what she thought below and also subscribe to our channel on YouTube.

Transcript: Correctional history in the United States is read on with the keel. Your ideas about how to change behavior. In the colonial days, Hillary’s are used to define the heads, are beggars. And truckers said that they were unable to avoid public Kds. Feeds were forever granted with the letter T and scopes were swung out over the river and ducked into the water as a way to their heated towns. Have luck. The situation was seen as the avenue to repentance. In the 808 hundreds behind the ominous walls of the Eastern State Penitentiary. Isolation and silent reflection, or the primary mechanisms of prisoner rapport. Prisoners existed in tiny, one person sells designed to isolate them from an evil criminal subculture. This sought after atonement gave way to a break down of the human spirit and mental illness. By 870, a new congregate but silent system emerged. In this system, OB, hard work were the markers of reformation. Inmates work together during the day in silence. They walked in lockstep formation and more punished harshly for any type of communication with other prisoners. In the evening, they were returned to their solitary cells for silent reflection. These early forms of punishment were rooted in the classical school of thought that assumed people chose to engage in crime after weighing the costs and benefits. Deterrence based strategies were viewed as the way to make people think twice about engaging in subsequent crime. Although corporal forms punishment succumb to claims of cruel and unusual punishment, presence continued as a mainstay of correctional practice. In the early 19 hundreds, however, progressives shifted the focus of correctional practice from deterrence to rehabilitation. The rehabilitative ideal was rooted in the positivists school of thought. That as soon people engaged in crime in response to forces over which they had no control. Positivists believed in determinism or the idea that biological, psychological, and social factors determined whether or not a person would engage in crime. They also believed that if factors could be addressed or fixed, we could help people the crime free lives. But could this be accomplished within the confines of prison? And how much time behind bars was needed to achieve Reformation. The indeterminate sentence was introduced and supported this new rehabilitative ideal. People were sentenced to an indefinite period of time, say, three to ten years, and release was dependent on their demonstrated Reformation. But little programming was offered and people could languished forever trying to convince prison officials that they had changed. The inadequacies of Crescent as a context. Lactation soon gave way to probation and parole. These non-custodial sanctions, progressives argued, would facilitate the individualized treatment required to address diverse motivations for engaging in crime. Probation and parole officers played the role up that they never like humans, service worker who counseled and supported clients and their assistance efforts.

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