CJUS 646 LU Week 1 Psychological Treatment in the Criminal Justice System Responses


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Reply to original post reply of at least 150 words. Each replymust incorporate at least 4 scholarly citation(s) in APA format. Any sourcescited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources includethe textbook, federal research studies, the Bible, peer reviewed journals (canbe found in the Falwell library and Google Scholar) etc. Aniya post-The Martinson report examined the effectiveness of prison reforms which focused on rehabilitating offenders to decrease recidivism (Alarid, 2019). Alarid (2019) argues that the Martinson report was intended to help reduce the use of prisons for punishment and encourage treatment programs, but ultimately, it failed. The report found that vocational training and counseling programs failed and did not directly impact recidivism. The report results had a social impact because people’s support for indeterminate sentencing decreased. After all, it made them question the effectiveness of rehabilitation (Alarid, 2019). The Martinson report significantly impacted correctional reform programs’ political and social perspectives because it led to debates between political groups. For example, conservatives wanted harsher punishments that were more common with determinate sentencing and argued for decreasing the use of reform programs to ensure criminals were punished for their crimes (Alarid, 2019).

The Martinson report findings showed that there is not one specific treatment method that is the most effective at decreasing recidivism (Martinson, 1974). Martinson (1974) argues that it is difficult to determine why the programs in the studies failed, because of the prison conditions that held the programs, or because of the quality of the programs. “For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sin” (New International Bible, 1978/2011, Matthew 5:14-15). Sentencing options such as treatment programs or probation instead of prison allow people to face the consequences of their crimes and receive help for the factors that might have caused them to commit crimes. In addition, treatment programs could help offenders change their lives to stop them from reoffending in the future.


Alarid, L. (2019). Community-based Corrections (12th ed.).

Martinson, R. (1974). What Works?-Questions and Answers About Prison Reform. The Public Interest, 35, 22–54.

New International Bible. (2011). The NIV Bible. https://www.thenivbible.com/ (Original work published 1978) Zaccheus post- Before we can discuss the impact and the findings of the Martinson Report we first need to discuss what the Martinson Report is. The Martinson Report is a study conducted to see if the current Penal System was effectively achieving rehabilitation efforts or if the penal system was just existing on a custodial basis. The study tool place in the late 1960s until the 1970’s. The Martinson Report found that the current system of the time had very little effect on the recidivism rate. The Martinson report created a hopeless mentality around the corrections system and the era of rehabilitation came to an end. The Martinson Report helped give rise to the crime prevention models of policing, the scared straight programs, boot camps, and any other deterrence method that could be thought of. According to an article about boot camps the authors state that “boot camps came to be as an alternative option for incarceration for first time non-violent criminal offenders (Csukai et al. 2018)”. Also, in an article about crime prevention the authors have an undertone of Martinson Report when they state, “crime is a manifestation of incivility and a by-product of urbanization and human advancement (Lim et al. 2020)”. Scared straight programs were widely considered a failure but they did have some merit according to an article testing the effectiveness of these programs. The authors state “that programs like scared straight did not have any effect on offending or delinquency but it did lower antisocial attitudes in youth (Van der Put et al. 2021)”. There was a study done that found “increasing the risk of apprehension and conviction is more influential in reducing crime than raising the expected severity of punishment (Bun et al. 2019)”. All of these authors have talked about what was wrong but in an article about crime deterrence the authors discuss the reason why things are wrong. The authors state “there a several issues in the field of study like ambiguity scope and complexity of the subject matter, little systematic program or policy evaluation, lack of readily available and accessible data for research purposes, and the type and quality of research in this are (Schell-Busey et al. 2020)”. But after all of that being said I find myself agreeing with the article that analysis inequality and unemployment link to crime. the authors state that “income inequality and unemployment have a positive impact on crime, whereas that of deterrence is negative, the effect of income inequality on crime is larger when inequality is measured on a wider population proportion, and property crime is generally highly sensitive to the deterrence effect of police (Costantini et al. 2017)”. There is a consequence for people’s actions and even in the bible people faced consequences for their actions. In the bible it says “Afterward Joshua struck them and put them to death, and he hanged them on five trees. And they hung on the trees until evening (English Standard Version Bible, 2022, Joshua 10:26)”.

Bun, M., Kelaher, R., Sarafidis, V., Weatherburn, D. (2019). Crime deterrence and punishment revisited. Empirical Economics. 1-31.

Costantini, M., Meco, I., & Paradiso, A. (2017). Do inequality, unemployment and deterrence affect crime over the long run. Regional Studies. 52(4), 558-571.

Csukai, M., & Ruzsonyi, P. (2018). Juvenile boot camps in the shadow of tragedies. Academic and Applied Research in Military and Public Management Science. 17(1), 5-11.

English Standard Version Bible. (2022). ESV Online.

Lim, S., Chee, K., Jalaluddin, A., Mohd, F., & Abd, H. (2020). Effectiveness of fear and crime prevention strategy for sustainability of safe city. Sustainability. 12(24), 10593.

Schell-Busey, N., Rorie, M., & Simpson, S. (2020). Protocol for corporate crime deterrence an updated systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews. 16(2).

Van der Put, C., Boekhout van Solinge, N., Geert, S., Machteld, H., & Assink, M. (2021). Effects of awareness programs on juvenile delinquency: a three-level meta-analysis. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. 65(1), 68-91.

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